Researchers from McMaster University analysed several respiratory vaccine delivery techniques and discovered that inhaled aerosol vaccinations give superior protection and immunity compared to nasal spray vaccines.
Inhaled aerosols, on the other hand, bypass the nasal channel and deliver vaccine droplets deep within the airway to stimulate a wide protective immune response. Nasal sprays, on the other hand, reach the nose and throat first.
Utilizing a TB vaccine, the research that was conducted and published in the online journal Frontiers in Immunology compared different ways of administration by analysing the distribution of immune responses, the dispersion of droplets, and the effectiveness of the vaccination in animals.
When the vaccine was given by inhalation, it elicited a more robust immune response and hence offered significantly enhanced protection against TB.
In most cases, an infection in the upper respiratory tract won’t be life-threatening to the patient. When an infection is produced by a virus that causes SARS-CoV-2 or influenza, it has a tendency to be severe when the virus penetrates deep into the lung, which causes an individual to get very ill. This is true whether or not the illness is caused by a virus.
Importantly, the immune response that is generated by the vaccine when it is administered deep into the lung is much stronger than when it is generated when the vaccine is deposited in the nose and throat because of the anatomy and nature of the tissue, and the immune cells that are available for response are very different, as stated by one of the investigators who worked on the study. This was a finding that was made by one of the investigators who worked on the study.
As a result of the investigation, solid preclinical data was generated for the very first time to support the development of an inhaled aerosol delivery nasal spray for human immunisation against respiratory illnesses such as COVID-19, TB, and influenza.
It is estimated that more than 6.3 million people passed away as a direct result of COVID-19, and respiratory infections continue to be a major source of sickness and death around the globe. Because of this, there has been a recent uptick in the urgency and intensity of efforts being made all around the world to produce vaccinations that can be administered directly to the mucous lining of the respiratory system.